BEEF CUT GUIDE

Chuck Roast
The large, square-shaped chuck or shoulder is full of tough, though flavorful, muscles. The chuck is cut into a bewildering array of moderately priced pot roasts popular in retail markets. Chuck roasts, which may be sold either bone-in or boned, rolled, and tied, are used in home-style cooking in many countries. Pot roasts from the chuck have more fat, and therefore more flavor, than those from the round.



Short ribs are a popular cut of beef. Beef short ribs are larger and usually more tender and meatier than their pork counterpart, pork spare ribs.  Short ribs are cut from the chuck A full slab of short ribs is typically about 10 inches square, ranges from 3-5 inches thick, and contains three or four ribs and fat which is thick on one end of the slab and thins down to almost nothing on the other.


BEEF CUT GUIDE

Arm Roast
You can use this for a pot roast, or cut it up for stew meat, but it’s too tough to cook with dry heat. Of all of the “pot roasts”  this is my personal favorite. It has enough tallow to easily keep the meat moist and tender. You can use a crock pot or simply wrap your seasoned roast in foil with the seam at the top to hold in juices and cook in the oven at 225 to 250 for 5 or 6 hours. This is just a butcher’s blade away from the shoulder roast, and the main difference between the two is that the arm roast has a round bone in it and is slightly more tender.

BEEF CUT GUIDE

Pikes Peak Roast
Also called heel of round roast is cut from low in the round, just above the hock. It contains many small muscles and lots of connective tissue.  This is the least tender of the round roasts, but it cooks up into an flavorful pot roast using the braising method. This is done by heating oil in a heavy pan on the stove top and browning the meat on all sides. Lower the heat and add cooking liquid and seasonings; cover and bring to a low simmer for two to four hours until the meat is fork tender which will depend on the size of the roast."


BEEF CUT GUIDE

Rump Roast
A rump roast is a cut of meat that comes from the bottom round, or the fleshy hindquarters of the animal. These roasts are boneless; if the bone is left in, it is called a standing rump roast. Though a rump roast is often considered a lower-quality cut of meat, there are ways to prepare it that can make it quite delicious.

The roast should be cooked in the oven by placing it on a rack in a shallow pan, which allows the juices to drip down into the pan. These juices can be used for basting the roast and making gravy. You can add a variety of vetgetables such potatoes, carrots and onions that can be roasted with the meat.  Roast for 25 to 40 minutes per pound according to the doneness you prefer.

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BEEF CUT GUIDE

Rib Steak
Tender and flavorful ribs roasts can be cooked any number of ways. Most recipes call for ribs to be roasted, sautéed, pan-fried, broiled, or grilled. The Rib Roast - known as a standing rib roast (bone left in) is excellent when dry roasted. A seven-bone prime rib roast can be quite a hefty addition to the dinner table. It is great for a crowd, usually one rib will serve two people. Also cut from the rib section are tender Rib Steaks with bone-in or as boneless, Prime Rib. The juicy rib-eye comes from the same muscle that gives us those delicious top loin and top sirloin cuts. This cut can be roasted to make a boneless version of a rib roast, or cut into individual steaks, called rib-eye steaks. Rib-eye roasts are very tender, well marbled with fat, and fairly expensive.


BEEF CUT GUIDE

Sirloin
The Sirloins are extremely tender cuts and can be prepared without the aid of moist heat or long cooking times. Cuts from the short loin may be sautéed, pan fried, broiled, pan broiled or grilled.

The Tenderloin - often considered the most tender cut of beef; responds well to sauces, meaning the meat does not overpower the flavor of the sauce. It can be cut as the whole strip, or into individual steaks for filet mignon. If you choose to have filet mignon or the Tenderloin in one piece then you will not get T-bone or Porterhouse steaks. Instead you will have strip steaks.

The Porterhouse Steak - a very popular steak cut from the rear end of the short loin; the name originated from the days when it was served in public alehouses that also served a dark beer called porter. The porterhouse consists of both tenderloin and strip steak.

The T-bone Steak - cut from the middle section of the short loin; similar to the porterhouse steak; has a smaller piece of the tenderloin; usually grilled or pan-fried

The Strip Steak is one of the highest quality beef steaks on the market. Cut from the strip loin part of the sirloin, the strip steak consists of a muscle that does little work, and so it is particularly tender, though not as tender as the nearby ribeye or tenderloin (fat content of the strip is somewhere between these two cuts, allowing for a flavor profile to match). Unlike the nearby tenderloin , the strip loin is a sizable muscle, allowing it to be cut into the larger portions favored by many steak eaters.(The Kansas City strip steak usually has a portion of the bone connected, whereas the New York strip steak is boneless.)


BEEF CUT GUIDE

Stew Meat
Beef for stew is typically cut from the chuck or round, but may come from any cut except the shank or top round. (Beef top round is so lean that it doesn’t perform well in stew or braised recipes.) Beef for stew is well trimmed and cut into 3/4 to 1-1/2 inch pieces.

BEEF CUT GUIDE

Hanger Steak
Anatomically the diaphragm is one muscle, but it is commonly cut into two separate cuts of meat: the "hanger steak" traditionally considered more flavorful due to its proximity to the kidneys. The hanger is attached to the last rib and the spine near the kidneys. It resembles flank steak, and is a vaguely V-shaped pair of muscles with a long, inedible membrane down the middle. The hanger steak is not particularly tender, but has a lot of flavor, and is best marinated and cooked quickly over high heat (grilled or broiled) and served rare or medium rare to avoid toughness.

There is only one hanger steak per side, and the entire cut typically weighs about three quarters to one pound. It is prized for its flavor, and was sometimes known as "butcher’s steak" because butchers would often keep it for themselves rather than offer it for sale.


BEEF CUT GUIDE

Flank Steak
The underside of the belly is called the flank. It is the part directly below the sirloin and the short loin. Steaks cut from this area are grainy and chewy. Hence, special cooking methods are needed. But these cuts are favored for their beefy flavor. There is only one Flank Steak per side.

Flank steaks are cut differently from other steaks. The cutting is done in thin slices diagonally along the grain. This makes the steak softer to cut. Flank steaks are tough. They are marinated before the actual cooking, usually overnight. The marinating makes cooking flank steaks a faster process. Flank steaks should not be cooked to anything more than medium rare or they become quite tough. 

The marinade used for tenderizing flank steak is a mixture of various liquids, most of them acidic like lemon juice, vinegar, wine or tomato juice.  Fruits such as papaya or pineapple may also be used.  The best method is to place the raw flank steaks into a zip lock bag along with the marinade and refrigerate it overnight. Marinated steaks cannot be stored for long; hence they should be cooked as soon as the tenderizing is done. After marinating, discard the marinade; do not use it for basting.

Marinated flank steaks can be cooked by dry heating methods such as grilling, broiling or pan-frying. They need high heat for their striated muscle fibers to be properly done. They need almost double the time it takes for other steaks to be cooked. Flank steaks are also very delectable when they are stuffed and baked or braised. Before serving, flank steaks are cut into thin slices and suitably garnished.

Flank steaks are more difficult to cook than other steaks. They are also priced lower than other steaks. Despite the special care that must be taken to cook flank steaks, they are extremely popular due to their excellent flavor. Steaks marketed under the name ‘London broil steaks’ are usually flank steaks.

Flank steaks are less fattening than loin steaks. A 3 ounce piece of flank steak will have about 192.1 calories. It contains approximately 26% proteins and 12.5% fat.


BEEF CUT GUIDE

Round Steak
A Round Steak is a steak from the round section of a steer. It is often called a rump roast.  Specifically, a round steak is the eye round, bottom round, and top round still connected together. This is a lean cut and it is moderately tough. Lack of fat and marbling makes the round steak dry out when cooked with dry-heat cooking methods like roasting or grilling. Round steak is commonly prepared with slow moist-heat methods such as braising to tenderize the meat and maintain moisture.


Cube Steak
Cube Steak is usually top round tenderized by pounding with a meat mallet, or the use of an electric tenderizer. Many professional cooks insist that regular tenderizing mallets cause too much mashing to produce a proper cube steak, and insist on either using specialized cube steak machines, like the one our butcher uses.  This is the most common cut of meat used for chicken fried steak.

BEEF CUT GUIDE

Brisket
With a little bit of time and the proper cooking method, even the toughest piece of meat can be made delicious. Brisket is one of the least tender cuts of beef, but it can be made tender and the flavor is tough to beat.

Brisket is a beef cut taken from the breast section beneath the first five ribs, behind the foreshank. The brisket is an inexpensive boneless cut that requires long, slow cooking to break down the collagen in the connective muscle tissues to achieve tenderness.

Brisket is usually prepared using a braising method, with a liquid that produces wonderful gravy.
You’ll need to plan ahead when cooking fresh brisket as it will need a minimum of 2 to 3 hours of cooking in a slow oven (usually 350 degrees F.) Better yet, use a slow cooker and let it cook all day. Some recipes call for quickly searing the meat before beginning the braising process but that’s really a matter of personal preference. Do be sure to place the meat in the pan fat-side up for baking.

If you are on a low-fat diet, resist removing the fat until after the brisket is done cooking. The fat not only adds flavor, it also protects the brisket from drying out on top.

The texture of brisket requires thin slicing across the grain through the long fibers. Slice it any other way and you may chew longer, but the flavor will still be great.

Brisket can be frozen from six to twelve months.


BEEF CUT GUIDE

Ground Beef


Nutritional Values for 3 Oz. of 73%, 80%
and 85% Lean Cooked Ground Beef.

Ground Beef
3 0z. Cooked
Portion

73% Lean

80% Lean

 85% Lean

Calories

248

 235

 213

Protein (g)

22.84

24.38

 24.85

Total Fat (g)

16.83

14.52

 11.81

Iron (mg)

2.27

2.18

2.37

Zinc (mg)

4.99

5.35

5.51


I personally tell the butcher to make the ground beef very very lean. It suits me,  but you have to make your choice.

BEEF CUT GUIDE

Offals
Liver is an excellent source of high-quality protein, vitamins and minerals. It can be used in the prevention and treatment of a variety of nutrient deficiency illnesses.http://dw.com.com/redir?tag=rbxira.2.a.10&destUrl=http://www.cnet.com/b.gif However, liver is also a concentrated source of cholesterol. Four ounces of beef liver contain about 400 milligrams (mg) of cholesterol, exceeding the recommended daily limit set by the American Heart Association by 33 percent. Ounce for ounce, beef liver offers the greatest amount of protein. Four ounces of raw beef liver provides more than 22 grams of protein. Because the protein is of animal origin, liver contains all the amino acids essential to human health. Liver provides the most concentrated amount of vitamin A of all food sources. It is considered an efficient aid in vitamin A deficiency. The current Recommended Dietary Allowance of vitamin A is 800-1,000 micrograms (mcg) for adults. A 3 1/2-ounce serving of beef liver provides 18,000 mcg of vitamin A. Babies and very young children often have diets already high in vitamin A and are at higher risk of vitamin A poisoning from frequent liver consumption. Liver has long been a part of the treatment for pernicious anemia because it is a rich source of heme iron (the organic iron in animal foods). This type of iron is five times more easily absorbed than non-heme iron. Liver is a good source of the mineral phosphorus. A diet which includes large quantities of liver also should include added calcium since high phosphorus intake can create a deficiency of calcium. One of the few natural sources of vitamin D, liver is also an excellent source of all the B vitamins (particularly B12), copper, vitamin C and trace minerals.

Store liver at 0° F for no longer than three or four months.

For all the nutrients liver provides, and the amount of fat and cholesterol it contains, liver is a surprisingly low calorie food. Four ounces of raw chicken liver contains only 144 calories. Four ounces of beef liver contains only 182 calories. Liver has almost no connective tissue, and should be cooked quickly to prevent it from drying out.

Some methods of preparation will greatly increase the calorie content. Deep frying or sautéing in animal fat will boost both the fat and calories. Liver pate is usually extremely rich, with large quantities of fats added. Broiling or sautéing over high heat with little added fat in a non-stick pan are more advisable approaches. Many cooks marinate the liver, or use herbs to give it added flavor and to cover any strong tastes which some liver contains naturally.

With some educated discretion, liver can be cooked and enjoyed in many forms. From the simple searing in a hot pan with a dash of wine, to an elegantly sauced entree, it can be a part of one’s interesting and varied diet.